Praise be to Allaah.
There is no stipulation that Jumu‘ah prayer should be
offered in a masjid or jaami‘ according to the majority of fuqaha’ of the
Hanafi, Shaafa‘i and Hanbali madhhabs, unlike the Maalikis.
It says in al-Bahr al-Raa’iq (2/162), which is a
Hanafi book: The words “and general permission” mean: The condition of it
being valid is that it should be done in the usual manner. So, for example,
if a ruler were to close the gates of the fortress and lead his family and
troops in offering Jumu‘ah prayer, that is not valid. This is what it says
in al-Khulaasah. In al-Muheet it says that if he opens the
gate of his palace and gives the people permission to enter, it is valid
although it is makrooh, because he did not fulfil the right of the Jaami‘
mosque. End quote.
It says in Tarh al-Tathreeb (3/190): Our view (i.e.,
the Shaafa‘i madhhab) is that establishing Jumu‘ah is not only to be done in
the mosque; rather it may be performed in an ordinary building. If they do
it in a place other than a mosque, the one who enters that place should not
pray during the khutbah, because there is no “greeting” (2-rak‘ah prayer
upon entering) for it. End quote.
It says in al-Insaaf (2/378), which is a Hanbali book:
With regard to the words “it is permissible to perform it in various
buildings or buildings that are on the edge of the wilderness”, this is the
view of our madhhab and it is the view of most of the scholars of the
madhhab, many of whom stated it definitively. And it was said that it is not
permissible to perform it anywhere except in the jaami‘. End quote.
With regard to the Maalikis, they stipulated that it must be
performed in the jaami‘, as stated above.
Khaleel al-Maaliki said concerning the conditions of Jumu‘ah:
[It should be] in a jaami‘ that is built separately.
In al-Taaj wa’l-Ikleel (2/520) it says: “In the
jaami‘.” Ibn Basheer said: The jaami ‘ is one of the conditions of offering
this prayer. Ibn Rushd said: It is not valid to establish Jumu‘ah except in
a designated mosque. Al-Baaji said: One of the conditions is a mosque that
is built specifically for that purpose in the usual style of mosques. End
To sum up:
Jumu‘ah prayer in the place mentioned is valid according to
the majority of scholars, if it is not possible to allocate a specific place
for the Muslims to pray and if they cannot go to the nearest mosque or
Islamic centre in which Jumu‘ah prayer is offered.
And Allah knows best.