Praise be to Allaah.
With regard to a Muslim entering into a partnership with a
Christian or any other non-Muslim in raising livestock or farming or
anything else, the basic principle is that it is permissible so long as it
does not involve too close a friendship, and it is only cooperation in
some kind of wealth such as agriculture, livestock and so on. A number of
the scholars said that that is permissible provided that the Muslim
himself is in charge of the business, i.e., he himself is in charge of
running the venture in agriculture or raising livestock, and the kaafir
should not do that, because he is not to be trusted.
This is subject to further discussion. If this partnership
will lead to too close a friendship or doing that which Allah has forbidden
or failing to do that which Allah has enjoined, then this partnership is
haraam because of the corruption to which it leads. But if it will not lead
to any of those things and the Muslim is the one who is in charge, and he is
the one who will take care of it so that he would not be cheated, then there
is nothing wrong with that.
But whatever the case, it is better to avoid such
partnerships and to enter into partnerships with his Muslim brothers rather
than others, so that he will keep his religious commitment and his wealth
safe, because entering into a partnership with one who is an enemy to him in
religious terms poses a danger to his morals, religious commitment and
wealth. So it is better for the believer in every situation to keep away
from such matters, so as to protect his religious commitment, to protect his
honour, to protect his wealth and so as to avoid betrayal by one who is an
enemy to him in religious terms, except in cases of necessity when there is
a need for that, in which case there is nothing wrong with it, subject to
the conditions mentioned above, namely that it should not cause any harm to
his religious commitment, honour or wealth and on condition that he should
be in charge, because that is safer for him. So the kaafir should not be in
charge; rather the Muslim should be in charge of the business or a Muslim
should act on his behalf.
Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allah have mercy on him)
Fataawa Noor ‘ala al-Darb, 1/294.